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Elevator Traffic Planning

Traffic Planning

By integrating high-precision traffic planning with the building-specification operation plan, Toshiba offers you an optimum elevator group control system for your building.

This system will corresponds to the demand by distinguishing the peak hours such as early of working hours and lunch time from the non-peak hours. The latest elevator group control system allows multiple elevators to work together systematically and optimally while providing maximum conveniences to the passengers.

1. Deciding speed

Speed of elevator is generally determined by the number of floor in the building. A general guide is that it should not take more than 30 seconds to travel in between the top and the lowest floors. Decide the optimum speed for the building by applying this basic rule and considering the factors such as building's purpose, characteristics, and service policy.

■ Relationship between elevator speed and number of floors in building

2. Deciding number of cars

1. Determine the number of cars required
Decide sufficient number of cars to maintain the transportation capacity and waiting time within the service standards during peak hours which has large number of passengers. Below is a general guideline to determine the number of cars.

Service Level Office Building Hotel
Number of users per elavator car Number of rooms per elavator car
Service oriented 150 - 200passengers 90 - 120rooms
Standard service 200 - 250passengers 120 - 150rooms
Economy oriented 250 - 300passengers 150 - 180rooms

Note that for hotel, approximately two-thirds additional cars need to be allowed as service elevators are not included.

2. Traffic calculation
When deciding on the number of elevator cars, passenger capacity and service floors, study of numerical data is required for the traffic calculation. The general values for traffic calculation are shown below.

Office building :
Start of office hours set to be peak for traffic demand

Building Use Transportation capacity ratio per 5 minutes Average operation interval
Excluseive owned
possession.
20 - 25% Service oriented: 30 sec or less
Standard service: 40 sec or less
Economy oriented: 50 sec or less
Semi-exclusively
owned bldg.
16 - 20%
Government bldg.
General office bldg. 11 - 15%

Hotel :
Morning hours for check-ins and evening hours when guests leave or go to dinner set to be peak for traffic demand

Hotel Type Transportation capacity ratio per 5 minutes Average operation interval
City hotel 8 - 10% 40 sec or less
Resort hotel 10 - 13% 50 sec or less

3. Simulation
The building's traffic demand could be simulated with computer to understand more about the service condition such as average waiting time and chances of long waits. Integrating the result simulation with the traffic calculation to allow for better accuracy planning. The output of the simulation contains the peak hours and the usual service condition. The general values for the simulation are as follows:

Example : Rental office building with demand concentration at 6% of building population per 5 minutes span (during office hours)

Average wait times : 30sec or less
Chance of response within 30seconds : 70% or greater
Chance of response after 60 seconds or more : 5% or less

3. Deciding Passenger Capacity

Decision of passenger capacity must be planned with the considerations of peak hours , characteristics of building and make allowance for leeway. Generally, the following plans are recommended:

1.For a small or mid-sized building, passenger capacity of 15 (load capacity of 1000kg) or higher.
For a hotel or large office building, passenger capacity of 24 (load capacity of 1600kg) or higher.

2.Doors should open from the center, and the car entrance should be as wide as possible.

3.The car should be with in relation to its depth

4. Deciding Service Floor

Office buildings of more than 20 stories are zoned in order to decrease transportation time and improve the rental rates. Zoning refers to dividing elevator service into several zones, and assign group of elevators for each zone. The following point must be take into consideration in order to apply the zone system effectively.
Unlike office buildings, a single elevator group is recommended for hotels 40 stories or less to give priority to the first-time users and conveniences. Using a single group elevators, make less hassle for the passengers to select an elevator based on their destination floor, and is also more flexible than zoning. Allow a number of elevators to be used for special occasions temporarily, without greatly affecting the passengers. In additional, if the hotel has banquet halls or wedding chapel, it is advisable to assign escalator or elevator specially for these guests.

1.There should be about 10 to 15 floors per zone.

2.In consideration of future movements in tenant population, 2 floors of each service zone should overlap to allow for movement between floors.

3.Post the service floors clearly in order to keep people from getting on the wrong elevator.

4.Keep each elevator at the top or bottom of its service zone.

5. Deciding The Layout

Elevator layout has great influences on building's functionality. Thus, the elevator must be installed in such a way that it is easy to use without affecting the performances.

■ Recommend the examples of elevator layout

1.Position the elevator so that any part of the floor can be reached with little walking, with a focus on lines of movement for traffic.

2.When installing several elevator groups, concentrate each group in a single location.

3.When lining elevators in a row, keep the number of elevators to no more than 4, with at most 8 meters between the elevators on each end.

4.If more than 4 elevators are installed, place them on facing sides of a hallway, with 3.5 to 4.5 meters between them.

5.It must be possible to see all elevators from anywhere in the hall. Avoid constructions with pillars in the elevator hall, and layouts with recessed elevator car entrances.

6.The elevator hall must be large enough that passengers do not spill out even during peak hours. In general, plan the elevator hall large enough to hold about 1/2 the combined maximum capacity of the cars (about 0.5 to 0.8 m2 are required per passenger).

6. Operating system

Select the operating system based on the building functionality, number of elevators in group.

Use /
No.Cars
Building owned
by single company
Leased office building Hotel Condominium
Large Smaller Large Smaller
1 Fully automated
collective control
  Fully automated
collective control
  Fully automated
collective control
Fully automated
collective control
2 Fully automated
duplex collective
control
Fully automated
duplex collective
control
Fully automated
duplex collective
control
Fully automated
duplex collective
control
3 Group Control System Group Control System Group Control System Group Control System Group Control System Group Control System
4
5
6
7-12    

7. GROUP CONTROL SYSTEMS

We will always analyze the very latest elevator operating conditions to predict the future elevator service situation, select the most suitable elevator and deliver it to the point of use.
Toshiba Elevator Group Control System: The Real-Time Scheduling System (RTS) not only shortens the waiting time of the elevator but also allows us to provide various environmentally friendly driving functions such as "Power saving function" and "Power saving allocation function".

◯:STANDARD, △:OPTIONAL, ✕:Inapplicable specifications

Descriptions Number of elevator application Number of the maximum application floors (Note1) Model No.
GA-2000 GA-200 GA-20
"Real time scheduling system (RTS)" can be applied to 12 elevators maximum with the latest features such as "Power saving function" and "Power saving allocation function".
This is a group control system suitable for large and medium sized buildings.
3 to 12 unitsl 128 stops    
It is a group control system applicable for medium and small sized buildings capable of up to 6 elevators, taking over the design concept of the top model of the group control systems.
We respond with various specifications such as priority service function and peak correspondence functions for specific floors etc.
3 to 6 units 64 stops    
This is a group control system for medium and small sized buildings that meet the specifications of basic functions such as "Fuzzy control " and high-sensitivity allocation to shorten elevator latency. 3 and 4 units 40 stops    

※Note 1: An express zone is not included. The actual number of applications is based on each elevator models .

Function Explanation Model No.
GA-2000 GA-200 GA-20
Real-Time Scheduling System(RTS) A new hall calls assignment procedure that can assign a car for a hall call efficiently by estimating the arrival of time to each the floor considering the future occurrence of passenger.
Self-learning system Analyzes and stores traffic demand by time period, and automatically tunes the control parameters used for fuzzy control and similar.
High-sensitivity car assignment
(Fuzzy control)
A hall calls assignment procedure using the fuzzy control method.
Expert system Specialized experience and expertise are coded into rules , and the optimum rules selected to offer service that best meets humans' psychological needs.
GROUP CONTROL SYSTEMS GROUP CONTROL SYSTEMS

Real-Time Scheduling System

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